Guide – What Is A Topographical Land Survey?

What is a Topographical Land Survey?

We help you understand what a topographical survey is and why you might need one for your project.

Article By: Tom Ayre | Last Update: November 2020

In this article, we explain, in simple terms, what a topographical survey is, how it is undertaken and the key benefits in having one before starting a building project.

At the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of the purpose of a topographical survey. If you are unsure on whether to get one before your building project then this article will hopefully explain why it is so useful and how it can save problems further down the line.

In this article you can read about:

  • What is a topographical survey?
  • Example topographical drawings
  • How are topographic surveys carried out?
  • What gets surveyed?
  • Why do you need a topographical survey?
  • What types of data can be produced?
  • What information can a topographic survey produce?
  • How are topographical surveys undertaken?
  • How are topographical surveys produced in the office?
  • What to check when hiring a topographical survey company
  • Get a quote for your project

What is a Topographical Survey?

A topographical survey, also known as a land survey or topographical land survey, measures and identifies the exact location and details of natural and manmade features within an area of land.

A topographical survey picks up several different elements depending on the specification from the client. Typical features surveyed include:

  • Human-made features
  • Boundaries and fence lines
  • Buildings & structures
  • Surfaces such as paving, tarmac, concrete etc
  • Services such as power lines
  • Drainage features such as inspection chambers
  • Street furniture such as benches, lamp posts, bins etc
  • Natural features
  • Trees, bushes and vegetation
  • Ponds, lakes, watercourses
  • Ground heights/contours
  • Water levels

Following the survey, the information is then converted into an electronic CAD (Computer-Aided Design) file, the industry standard program is AutoCAD. This is then presented as plan drawing which can be sent electronically and physically printed. is then drawn up into a precise and detailed plan. Features include:

Land Surveys can encompass other types of surveys such as Measured Surveys, Monitoring Surveys, Setting Out Surveys and more.

Topographical surveys are usually required by architects and engineering companies when land is being developed or altered. This includes projects such as:

  • new buildings/structures
  • civil engineering projects
  • land repurposing

Land surveyors are, therefore, usually the first professionals on-site; whether a project is a new tunnel, a bridge or a house, contractors need surveyors to record and produce detailed drawings of the land and surrounding area.

Example Topographical Drawings

Topographical survey drawings are typically produced in a CAD software package. Once the drawings have been produced they are usually exported to PDF electronic drawings as well as A0/A1/A2/A3 paper drawings.

How Are Topographical Surveys Carried Out?

Topographical surveys are undertaken using a range of different survey equipment that can measure distances and angles extremely accurately (our surveyors prefer the latest Leica technology).

Precise equipment helps to produce a CAD (computer-aided design) drawing that accurately positions surveyed points in both plan and height. We use sophisticated industry-specific CAD software which allows us to map site measurements and create high quality, fully scaled 3D drawings of the project.

Often precise GPS survey equipment is used to locate and position fixed points on an area of land. These points are used as reference markers, thus allowing the surveyed area to be aligned to an existing national coordinate system in both plan and height. In the UK the most common national coordinate system used in land surveying is OSGB36.

Get Your Free Quote

Get your project off the ground and get a quotation, proposed start date and when you can expect your completed survey / drawings back.

What Gets Surveyed?

A topographical survey is as extensive as required. Usually, a client will have a good idea of what information they require. This is usually specified when instructing a surveying company to undertake the survey work. For instance, if you are working on repositioning boundary fences, survey items such as tree locations or inspection chambers may not be required.

A typical topographical survey when developing an area of land for building work picks up items such as:

  • Boundary locations
  • Building positions
  • Change in surfaces
  • Drains & invert levels
  • Inspection chambers (water, gas, electricity etc)
  • Kerb positions
  • Overhead lines (power, telephone etc)
  • Ridge & eaves heights of buildings
  • Spot heights of the land
  • Street furniture (bins, post boxes etc)
  • Tree locations with spread & trunk diameter
  • Water features (ponds, waterways etc)
If you are in need of guidance on what to survey for your project then RICS have a useful document “Measured surveys of land, buildings and utilities“.

Why Do You Need a Topographical Survey?

A topographical survey is essential when designing a land development project as it will help correctly plan out and coordinate the proposed layouts. Without accurate measurements, it’s difficult to plan a project accurately and safely. The complete plans allow you to see exactly how the existing site is arranged, including positions and associated heights of items. Useful applications for topographical surveys include:

Re-positioning boundaries
Knowing the exact location of boundaries is helpful as you may need to build a new building that is exactly x distance away from a boundary that may have been removed

Planning new construction projects
Knowing where items on-site such as trees, buildings, power lines, etc. allows you to position your building correctly, thus avoiding future problems

Correctly designing drainage schemes
 You will have the heights of the land and water features on-site that need to be tied into.

What Types of Data Can Be Produced?

Following the site survey, a range of information and drawings can be produced. This includes:

  • Drawings: Plans, elevations, sections, street scenes, lighting plans etc. Drawings are usually in CAD / PDF format
  • 3D Point Clouds: Data useful to build a 3D model of the site in a program such as Autodesk Revit
  • Photographs: Useful for people looking for information about the site
  • Schedules: Information such as inspection chamber inverts, pipe diameter sizes, etc. can be produced

How are Topographical Surveys Undertaken on Site?

A topographical survey is usually carried out by a team of experienced surveyors, armed with equipment including total stations, GPS equipment, 3D Scanners, laser measurement devices and tape measures. A total station is a tripod-mounted device used by surveyors to accurately plot single points which can be joined into lines and arcs to form a drawing of a site.

The survey begins with the team placing their fixed setting out marker points using the GPS and total stations. The fixed markers usually come in the form of survey nails secured into the solid ground (concrete, brick, etc.) or reflective tape targets fixed to walls.

These reference points are used to recalculate the position of the survey equipment as it moves around the site. They are vital for allowing the survey to be “stitched” together correctly from one set-up position to the next.

Using a total station in combination with taking notes and hand measurements, the surveyor will begin to record data. The total station uses laser technology to accurately record positions points in plan and height. Using a combination of 2 points, a line can be drawn on the total station to begin building up a detailed picture. A good example is taking a point on either end of a wall and drawing a line between the two.

In some instances, it may be necessary to use a prism mounted on a pole to pick up features. Using a modern robotic total station as the base unit, a surveyor can move around the site with the total station turning to follow as they move. Additionally, the surveyor can use a wireless computer unit to take points without looking through the lens of the total station. This often makes the process a lot more efficient.

How are Topographical Surveys Produced in the Office?

Once the required information has been recorded on-site, the surveyor returns to their office to draw up the survey using industry-specific CAD software. In our instance, we use AutoCAD.

The recorded data is exported from the total station/GPS equipment and saved onto a computer. The surveyor uses CAD software to begin tidying up and producing a plan view drawing of the land. The process usually involves joining lines together such as the corners of buildings or adding symbols such as trees. Height markers will also be added showing the levels of important elements such as the ground, building ridge heights, watercourse levels etc.

Once the base plan drawing has been produced, the surveyor begins to produce other drawings such as elevations and sections of the site. When all drawings have been completed, the surveyor will ask for a final check by a colleague before sending the CAD drawing and associated PDFs to the client. The client may give feedback to where additional detail may be required or where details can be relaxed. Drawings may be revised before the final copy is agreed.

screenshot of a topographical survey CAD drawing
Topographical CAD Drawing

What Should You Check When Hiring a Land Survey Company?

When appointing a land survey company you must choose the right company to avoid future problems as a result of poor drawings and communication. Before the appointment, we recommend checking the following:

Experience: Land Surveying is a complicated task. Surveyors are required to operate complex survey devices and then produce clear, accurate drawings to be presented to the client. An experienced survey team knows to avoid problems and get the work completed efficiently and to a high standard.

Size of company: Sometimes a “one-man-band” company is perfect for your requirements. On balance, however, this can cause problems with getting answers quickly, revisiting the site etc. Furthermore, a company with only 1 or 2 employees may leave clients waiting as they are regularly out of the office, unavailable to talk or not around to check or reissue drawings.

Insurances: When things go wrong, there can be serious financial implications. Check your land surveying company has the correct professional indemnity insurance for their work and that the cover they provide is more than suitable for your requirements. A reputable company should also carry an employer’s liability and public liability insurance.

General feel: Do employees professionally present themselves? Usually, gut instinct is helpful to get a feel for how easy it will be to work with a company. Red flags that raise suspicions include:

No address on the website: Can surveyors be tracked down if things go wrong? A survey company should not be operating from a PO box, for instance

Much cheaper than others: Like most things in life, you pay for what you get. A very low quote in comparison to other companies may result in poor workmanship and customer service

Telephone/email manner: Are your phone and email messages answered promptly? If not then this may reveal an overworked/understaffed company
Poorly designed website: This is usually a sign of a company who aren’t very technology savvy or aren’t too interested in the user experience on-site.

Topographical Survey Specification

When undertaking a construction project controlling your costs is important, and a precise survey will help you plan material and labour costs. Copy our detailed topographical land survey specification example to get accurate quotes from land surveyors.

A detailed topographical survey of your land and buildings makes for a smooth planning and construction process. It’s crucial that all required details are picked up at the survey stage so there are no nasty surprises once construction has begun!

1.1 – JOB NAME:
* Insert the name of the job

1.2 – CLIENT NAME:
* Insert your company name here.

1.3 – JOB CONTACT NAME:
* Insert your name here so the survey companies know who to address the quotes to.

1.4 – JOB CONTACT EMAIL:
* Insert your email address here so the survey companies can get in touch.

1.5 – DATE SENT:
* Insert todays date

2.1 SITE ADDRESS:
Address Line 1
Address Line 2
Address Line 3
Address Line 4

2.2 POSTCODE:
* Insert the postcode of the site.

2.3 SITE ACCESS DETAILS:
* Specify any details regarding access that may be an issue whilst getting on to site.

2.4 SITE ACCESS CONTACT DETAILS:
* Specify the details of the person or persons responsible for access on to site.

* Use this section to specify health & safety requirements.

3.1- Risk Assessment / Method Statements (RAMS)
Method Statement Required?
YES / NO

Risk Assessment(s) Required?
YES / NO

Additional Comments:
*Use this space to add more comments if required.

3.2- Insurance

Professional Indemnity Amount:
£x million.

Public Liability Amount:
£x million.

Additional Comments:
*Use this space to add more comments if required.

4.1- SITE EXTENT DESCRIPTION

Drawing of Site Provided: 
YES / NO

Marked Up Aerial Photos:  
YES / NO

Text Description (Below):
YES / NO

Additional Comments:
*Insert text description of the site here. Include any potential issues such as overgrowth, dangerous areas etc.

4.2 – GRID REFERENCE

Survey Orientated To:
OSGB36 / Local Site Grid

4.3 –  DRAWINGS TO PROVIDE:

* Use this space to specify what drawings you would like provided and the quantities once the survey has been undertaken.

Topographical Site Plan: 
X No.
* Describe any specific features here.

Elevations Drawings:     
X No.
* Describe any specific features here

Section Drawings:    
X No.
* Describe any specific features here

Other Drawing Types:   
X No.
* Describe any specific features here

Additional Comments:
* Use this space for additional comments. 

4.4 – DRAWING DELIVERABLES:

* Use this space to request the types and formats of the drawings you need for your job. Delete as necessary.

DWG Version (Year):
2014 / 2016 / 2018 DWG

Paper Copies Required?
YES / NO

Paper Copies To Be Posted:
A1 / A2 / A3 / Surveyors Discretion / Not Applicable

Number Of Copies Required:             
X No / Not Applicable

PDF’s Required?  
YES / NO

DISK Copies Required?
YES / NO

USB Stick
YES / NO

DVD Disk               
YES / NO

* Use this section to specify what you need picking up on your survey. Add comments underneath each section if required.

Banks of Earth
– Banks of earth including the bottom and tops of bank.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Buildings External
-External building wall lines surveyed and shown on the drawing.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Buildings Internal
– Internal measured survey of building(s) required.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Door Locations
– Locations of doors at ground floor level on the plans / elevations / sections.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Gate Locations
– Extent of gates in survey area.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Hand Rails
– Extent and detail of hand railing around the site.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Inspection Chamber Invert Levels
– Invert levels of the pipe at inspection chambers.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Inspection Chamber Locations
– Location and cover heights of inspection chambers.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Kerb Lines
– Kerb line positions and heights.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Neighbouring Properties
– Survey of neighbouring properties. These can include wall, ridge, window, door locations etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Overhead Wires
– Extent and location of overhead wires, power, telephone etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Poles & Posts
– Extent, location and height power poles, telegraph poles, light posts etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Roof Lines
– Location and extent of rooflines including heights of the ridges.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Services
– Location of service boxes such as gas, telephone, power etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Soffit Extent & Height
– Extent and height of soffit at roof level.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Spot Heights
– Grid centres of surface levels that need surveying. Levels to be picked up at major change intervals (ditches, retaining walls etc).

Grid Centres:
X by X metre grids

Stairs
– Location and extent of stairs and steps within the survey area.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Street Furniture
– Extent and location of street furniture, benches, bins, lamp posts etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Surface Changes
– Extent and location of changes in surface type, E.G grass, concrete, tarmac etc.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Tree Locations
– Location of trees and associated details.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Min Trunk Size to Survey
More Than X m diameter.

Tree Spread to Be Shown
YES / NO

Tree Height to Be Shown
YES / NO

Tree Type to Be Specified
YES / NO

Vegetation Outline
– Outlining extent of major areas of vegetation such as bushes and planting areas.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Water Courses / Ponds / Lakes / Pools
– Extent and location of watercourses throughout the site.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Windows
– Extent and location of windows. Shown on elevations only.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

Other
– If there is anything else you would like to specify please do it here.

To Be Surveyed?
YES / NO

* Use this section to specify if you need to leave any survey control stations. These can be useful for future construction works.

Survey Nails

Number to Be Placed:
X No.

Additional Comments:
* Insert comment, describe locations / what you need / types etc / or delete line.

Retro Targets

Number to Be Placed :
X No.

Additional Comments:
* Insert comment, describe locations / what you need / types etc / or delete line.

Datum Level Lines

Number to Be Placed:
X No.

Additional Comments:
* Insert comment, describe locations / what you need / types etc / or delete line.

Fixed Prisms

Number to Be Placed :
X No.

Additional Comments:
* Insert comment, describe locations / what you need / types etc / or delete line.

Get Your Free Quote

Get your project off the ground and get a quotation, proposed start date and when you can expect your completed survey / drawings back.

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