Architecture of Tower Bridge

One of London’s most iconic landmarks, Tower Bridge has an interesting history.

Article By: Francesca Burke
Last Update: July 2019

The Bridge’s Architecture

Tower Bridge is one of Britain’s most recognisable, iconic landmarks, but was actually designed purely as a functional bridge. In the mid-1800s, lots of road traffic needed to cross the River Thames downstream of London Bridge. A traditional bridge, however, would prevent river traffic from accessing the Pool of London docks.

The solution was a combined suspension and bascule bridge (also known as a drawbridge). Powered by hydraulics, bascules rise to allow boats to pass through. Designed by architect Horace Jones and civil engineer John Wolfe Barry (a son of Charles Barry, one of the architects of the Houses of Parliament), Tower Bridge was completed in 1894.

Drawing of Tower Bridge

An illustration of Tower Bridge

Construction & How the Bridge Works

Construction of Tower Bridge took 8 years, 5 contractors and 432 workers. More than 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways, although the framework itself is clad in granite and stone in order to protect the steel and offer a nicer appearance.

One of the most spectacular feats of civil engineering in Victorian Britain, Tower Bridge is 240m in length with two towers at 65m high. The central span between the towers is split into two equal bascules, which rise to an 86-degree angle, thus allowing river traffic to pass. Each bascule weighs over 1,000 tons and is counterbalanced so can rise in about five minutes. A high-level walkway was originally intended for members of the public to use while the bascules were raised for boats. It was closed in 1910, however, because people preferred to wait at street level than climb the stairs with heavy belongings!

The original hydraulic operating mechanism was powered by steam, but in 1974 was replaced by an electro-hydraulic system, using oil and electricity instead of water.

Tower Bridge elevation drawings

Elevations of Tower Bridge, from Wikipedia

Tower Bridge Today

Tower Bridge is in continuous use. According to, the City of London Corporation must raise the Bridge to provide access ‘for registered vessels with a mast or superstructure of 30 feet or more’. Bridge-lifting is free of charge subject to 24 hours’ notice and is available anytime and on any day. In total, Tower Bridge is raised about 850 times per year!

In 1982 a permanent exhibition opened at the Tower and the walkways reopened, transforming Tower Bridge into a tourist attraction with spectacular panoramic views of London. Nowadays visitors enjoy regular behind-the-scenes tours; the original steam engines remain in the Victorian Engine Rooms for public viewing and there’s a glass floor in the walkways offering birdseye views of bascules below.

Despite its status as an international tourist attraction, Tower Bridge hosts everyday events for locals including sunrise yoga classes on the glass walkway. Furthermore, it works with local communities, has an artist-in-residence and boasts a ground level ‘walk of fame’.

Are you interested in learning more about Tower Bridge? Visit its official website for more facts and figures, plus information about visiting in person. Do you have any interesting facts we’ve missed out? Let us know in the comments or on social media!

Tower Bridge London With Bridge Raised

Tower Bridge with the bridge raised, from Wikipedia